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1.Consider what we know intuitively about an integrator. If you apply a DC signal at the input (i.e. , zero frequency), the output will describe a linear ramp that grows in amplitude until limited by the power supplies. Ignoring that limitation, the response of an integrator at zero frequency is infinite, which means that it has a pole at zero frequency. (A pole exists at any frequency for which the transfer function’s value becomes infinite.)

2.While the complex frequency’s imaginary part helps describe a response to AC signals, the real part helps describe a circuit’s transient response.


3.The low-pass filter’s transient response is more stable, because its pole is in the negative-real half of the complex plane.


4.Clock Driver Skew (Intrinsic Skew) is the amount of skew caused by the clock driver itself. There are two kinds of clock driver devices; buffer devices and PLL-based devices. Skew occurs on the output of the buffer devices because of the differences in propagation delay of the input signal through the device.


5.The capacitance is directly proportional to the dielectric constant of the material and to the area of the plates and inversely to the distance of the plates.


6.The reading given when the pointer stops moving is the insulation resistance, which is normally high if the capacitor is in good condition.


7.The BIOS looks at the sequence of storage devices identified as boot devices in the CMOS Setup. "Boot" is short for "bootstrap", as in the old phrase "Lift yourself up by your boot straps". Boot refers to the process of launching the operating system. The BIOS tries to initiate the boot sequence from the first device using the bootstrap loader.


8.A third issue that has had a large impact on adoption is the widespread use of prepaid mobile phones in Europe (up to 75% in some areas). These can be purchased in many stores with no more formality than buying a radio. You pay and you go. They are preloaded with, for example, 20 or 50 euro and can be recharged when the balance drops to zero.

9.practically every teenager and many small children in Europe have (usually prepaid) mobile phone so their parents can locate them, without the danger of the child running up a huge bill. If the mobile phone is used only occasionally, its use is essentially free since there is no monthly charge or charge for incoming calls.


10.An integrator is the simplest filter mathematically, and it forms the building block for most modern integrated filters.


11.An implicit assumption in our discussion is that the power levels of all stations are the same as perceived by the receiver.

12.CDMA it typically used for wireless systems with a fixed base station and many mobile stations at varying distances from it.


13.The power levels received at the base station depend on how far away the transmitters are.


14.A good heuristic here is for each mobile station to transmit to the base station at the inverse of the power level it receives from the base station. In other words, a mobile station receiving a weak signal from the base station will use more power than one getting a strong signal. The base station can also give explicit commands to the mobile stations to increase or decrease their transmission power.


15.Ideally, the component should be removed from the circuit completely; but if this is inconvenient (at least until if proves necessary for removal), one or more leads should be disconnected and care taken to avoid current paths in neighboring components when testing.



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